alden-section-316b

Clean Water Act Section 316(b)

Alden’s Environmental and Engineering Services’ staff have over 50 years of combined experience working on § 316(b) compliance projects.  This wealth of experience positions Alden as the industry leader for § 316(b) compliance.  Alden staff have been involved in all aspects of the § 316(b) Rule including; 1) rulemaking development; 2) research, design, evaluation, and installation of intake technologies; and 3) completing the studies needed to demonstrate compliance, i.e., § 122(r) documentation.  Alden uses an integrated approach in developing § 316(b) compliance strategy for cooling water intake structures.  This approach is based on our familiarity with § 316(b) and involves close cooperation between engineers and scientists to ensure that a design will be biologically effective, feasible to construct, operate and maintain, and cost-effective while meeting regulatory requirements. 


Alden staff have been actively involved in the § 316(b) rulemaking process on behalf of the electric power industry since the process began in the 1990s.  Through EPRI and Utility Water Act Group (UWAG) participation, Alden staff has provided technical comments on the Phase I (new facilities), Phase II (existing facilities), and Phase III (smaller intakes with design flows less than 50 MGD) § 316(b) rules, the current existing facilities rule, and the associated Notice of Data Availability (NODA).  During this time, Alden staff met with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) several times to present the results of fish protection technology research on behalf of EPRI. 

Alden’s scientists and engineers have extensive experience in:

  • Research and development, evaluation, and design of fish screening facilities at large water withdrawals 
  • Hydraulic model studies, laboratory, and field biological evaluations,
  • Development of state-of-the-art fish protection facilities
  • Testing various types of fish, including coarse- and fine-mesh modified traveling screens (Ristroph-type collection screens with fish lifting buckets), fixed and traveling fish diversion screens, cylindrical wedgewire screens, rotary drum screens and fish return systems
  • Research on the effectiveness of behavioral barriers for preventing fish impingement, including strobe lights, sound deterrent systems, infrasound, air bubble curtains, hanging chains, electric deterrent and water jet barriers
  • Cooling water intake systems (CWIS) alternative technology design and costs assessments under the § 316(b) Phase II Rule for over 170 power plants located throughout the U.S. and continues to do so to satisfy § 122.21(r) requirements