Fish protection issues arising from the hydroelectric licensing process (FERC in the US), cooling water intake licensing for thermal power plants (Clean Water Act Section 316(b) in the US), and seawater desalination intakes can be a major concern for power plant developers and operators. The best fish protection system will depend heavily upon the plant type and upon the local site characteristics. At hydropower plants, fish protection systems often include upstream passage and downstream bypass or diversion. At cooling or drinking water intakes, fish protection generally involves a screening technology, often traveling water screens. Site specific concerns for fish protection technology include debris management and fish species behavioral and swimming capability implications.